Thursday, November 29, 2007
Note italics for fresh emphasis based on recent conversations
BEHAVIOR/JOURNAL due today, Thursday, (in my box, if not brought in to class), to be returned at Dec 5 session. Ideally, (it’s not too late!) share appreciation and feedback with others you have been involved with in your change work.
THURSDAY NOV 29: PROJECT PRESENTATIONS: up to 25 min each. Whole Community Project, Connect Ithaca, Caroline Group, plus Presentation by Libby
These are opportunities to educate the rest of the class and warm up and get feedback for your community presentations.
FINAL CLASS CELEBRATION: Wednesday, Dec 5 12:00-2:30 Sibley, Room ? **NOT OPTIONAL** I will provide lunch, an appreciation circle and a short evaluation process. You can design (or co-design with me) the remaining time, roughly 60 minutes - stories, reflections, games, music, dance, closing ritual, shoulder rubs, whatever you like, that celebrates and completes the community part of the class. I’d ideally like 1 or 2 people to help pull this together - this can be EASY & FUN! (Default –Ron or I can do it)
Completed by your whole group 10-20-pages (2 copies due in my box at Sibley, on or before Friday Dec 14 at 2:00, or second copy given directly to project guide) in collaboration with your project guide and/or community group. Be sure to share an outline and/or rough draft and discuss with them before completing the report.
Goal: A synthesis and COMMUNITY RESOURCE that can educate and engage the community/organization it serves and carry the project forward through future groups. Content & form can be modified with approval of Project Guide to suit project needs. Think of this as an effective public education document, a user-friendly handbook for community groups and future project teams.
Content: Must incorporate feedback, insights, and action steps coming from surveys and interactive presentations with community groups and our class. It should concisely and clearly include, though not necessarily in a linear way: Goals/Brief Overview… Resources and Stakeholders (not in full detail, as in appendix)….. Strategies/Key Steps….. Successes….. Obstacles….. Outcomes….. Lessons Learned….. Recommendations/Next Steps …..plus an Appendix with Data, Resource lists, etc. as appropriate. Some parts may be electronic (CD, DVD, etc.)
Method: You are encouraged to be creative, and engaging, but still cover the content You can divvy up the writing among team members, but whole team, should be involved in conceptualizing the core content and in editing and coordinating the final draft so its coming from a collective intelligence. Remember to include your guide and/or community group early on in the process so you know it is addressing real needs.
PERSONAL PROJECT REFLECTIONS
EACH team member will hand in a 1-2 page reflection on the project, electronically or in hard copy in my box at Sibley, on or before the last day of finals (Dec 14, 2 PM). Topics to cover: A) My evolving role and leadership in the project and in the group process. B) What I saw and learned in the team's development as a learning community and as a sustainability/social change action team. C) How the project work integrated with the course work for me. Overarching insights. D) Other observations and lessons learned, such as how to improve the project work in the course.
EVALUATIONS: Besides the online departmental evaluations, I will soon send you an electronic evaluation that includes brief evaluations of a) course, b) instructor, c) self, d) project & project guide, and e) project team members. Items a & b will primarily cover material not in the departmental evaluation. These evaluations, designed to take 30-60 minutes of your time, are REQUIRED for course completion and will be due by Tuesday night Dec 4, (NOT Dec 14) at 12 AM
Thursday, November 15, 2007
As I noted on the field trip, there is NO REQUIRED READING OR WRITING for Tuesday, Nov 20
Next Tuesday, we will have an opportunity to get to the many PRESENTATIONS you are eager to share. Please tell me if there is a mistake in this list and also what you will be presenting about, so I can see if there's any sensible order.
*******LEAH, KENDRA, CAITLIN, ANDREW, GREG, DEANE, AND KEITH
Nature in the City: KENDRA, CAITLIN, EMILY
Continue BEHAVIOR/JOURNAL work, (continue the Personal & Community Health thread, if you like). We will have time set aside for sharing on Tuesday. Observing how you fare with this when the crunch time happens is an important part of the learning.
Continue PROJECT work, first and foremost.
I am finishing up project-specific variations of Project Reports with guides. They are due during Finals Week, < NOT last week of classes> after incorporating feedback and insights from doing from presentations. Of course, you can get started on them earlier on in tandem with presentation work, and make the changes later on.
Basic project report plan is to write up as a group a 10-20-page (2 copies) project synthesis that can educate and engage the community/organization it serves and carry the project forward through future groups. It should concisely include, though not necessarily in a linear way: Goals/Brief Overview… Resources and Stakeholders (not in full detail, as in appendix)….. Strategies/Key Steps….. Successes….. Obstacles….. Outcomes….. Lessons Learned….. Recommendations/Next Steps …..plus an Appendix with Data, Resource lists, etc. as appropriate. Some parts may be electronic (CD, DVD, etc.) *******You are encouraged to be creative and engaging, but still cover the bases.*****
Again, thanks, for your inspiring efforts and enthusiasm
EWeek of lan
Sunday, November 11, 2007
Application of readings (Roseland ch. 11 “Housing…” and Beatley Ch. 10 “Building Ecologically…”) to Denver, Colorado.
“Ideally, closeness to other people is mirrored in a closeness to nature and integration of ecology into community living” (Roseland, 156).
During my time working at a transitional housing program for homeless families in Denver, I found myself constantly wondering what type of setting would facilitate community building between the families we were working with – to promote empowerment amongst the people as opposed to continued reliance on government assistance. I found it so unfortunate that the families who had gone through such similar turmoil and hardship in their lives, who could benefit from their empathy to build relationships and self-reliance, would often end up fighting, putting each other in danger, taking no responsibility for their shared housing, and choosing isolation over interaction. From my background in environmental design and architecture, I had a suspicion that much of the issue had to do with the poor design of their housing and surrounding neighborhoods, but I wasn’t sure what would help. (Although I remember thinking maybe they just needed more trees along their streets – but dismissed the thought thinking ‘too simple…but now I’m learning I was on to something!) When I came to the Design and Environmental Analysis program here at Cornell – my main hope was that I would learn about neighborhood-design-interventions that might facilitate the community-building processes that I had seen lacking in the mainly subsidized-housing neighborhoods I worked in. So… my thesis work has ended up focusing on Community Gardens and how they are a sort of “sanctuary” setting in a chaotic urban environment. My hope now is that after I graduate and move back to Denver that I will find a career where I am working with the community to solve the housing crisis as well as the community and social justice crises. So, needless to say, I found the Roseland “Housing and Community Development” chapter to be extremely meaningful and applicable to Denver city planning and policy!
I appreciate Roseland’s suggestion to design neighborhoods where residents can thrive. This statement really resonated for me: “To create a ‘sense of place’ and foster connection among people, the physical characteristics of neighborhoods must draw people together and encourage an atmosphere of peace, security, and pride among residents of a community” (156). Beatley mentions the community of Oikos (the Netherlands) where the physical design is intended to facilitate interaction between residents (297). These ideas from the readings are reminiscent of a statement from Jules Pretty, (professor of Environment and Society at the University of Essex) in an article titled “How nature contributes to mental and physical health,” where he suggests that policy makers and planners should focus efforts towards creating “healthy environments in which people can flourish rather than flounder” (Pretty, 2004, p. 69). It is so imperative that planners realize what an opportunity they have to create environments that not only “cause no harm” but go as far as to improve health and wellbeing.
As I’ve mentioned in a previous blog, but I think it’s worth mentioning again, energy efficient housing is extremely important, after seeing some of my former clients public service bills which were near $800.00 – 1,000.00 /month. The chapters of Habitat for Humanity that are building with energy efficiency as a priority are making a very necessary change.
In addition to my obsession with community gardens, I am beginning to become fascinated with other aspect of community-sharing that seem to have beneficial effects on community building. Roseland describes cooperatives and cohousing, where residents share cars, computers, laundry services, meal preparation, and childcare to reduce living expenses. While I believe this could work, I am a little skeptical without seeing the ideas in action. The single-mothers I worked with were extremely distrustful of almost everyone they came into contact with, (justifiably so) and I worry they would have a difficult time with the sharing and especially with the childcare, although it would be extremely helpful to them if it did work, as it seemed to be their biggest obstacle to finding and maintaining employment. If I were a policy-maker, I may be a little more inclined to opt for the Beyond Shelter model, which provides the childcare center (among many other important services) as part of the program services. If I were a citizen activist though I would argue that the problem with this is that it is not a sustainable or empowering as the community members providing their own childcare for themselves.
I thought that an aspect of Beatley’s example of Morra Park (Friesland region of the Netherlands) would probably work well in Denver; homes with 30% of the floor area “devoted to occupants’ primary economic livelihood” (294). Commuting in the Denver-metro area is a nightmare, and if there were a cultural shift towards more facilitation of working from home, I think many people would be thrilled.
I am a big fan of buildings that “learn,” (to refer to Stewart Brand’s book) and so if I were a Denver city planner I would definitely move to implement more buildings designed to adapt to changing needs and uses, by layout and ability to be dismantled and reconstructed, such as the examples Beatley gives of the school houses in Nieuwland, (Amersfoort) or the dismountable police station in Boxmeer, or the Dutch National Building (299-300).
Something that bothers me when I read about the need for density in cities is the fear of how this may reduce the natural light in the majority of spaces in densely built areas. So I was really excited to hear about some of the designs Beatley mentions that bring natural light into all areas of buildings. This is especially significant in the context of implementing these ideas in Denver, where sunlight is so plentiful, it would be detrimental to one’s wellbeing to sit in a windowless office all day – and unfortunately I know! (I tried to find an example of the “sun paintings” – the metal sculptures in the building that help to further bounce sunlight into the interior of the building, but I was unsuccessful. Too bad – I really want to see how it looks – I wonder if there’s a problem with glare?) The Queens Building at De Montfort University in Leicester is another example Beatley gives where bringing in natural light is a priority in the building-design.
I think that while many of these wonderful examples would be possible from a bottom-up approach, it would be so much easier with support or at least influence from the top. As Beatley says, “an important lesson … is the potentially powerful role government can play as a facilitator and catalyst for sustainable building” (318). I hope that the Denver city government will continue to move towards taking on this responsibility!
Friday, November 9, 2007
A) NO REQUIRED READING AND WRITING
(Optional: Briefly review readings from last class &/or finish out readings you haven’t done yet (Beatly, Roseland, Apollo report) &/or pursue an aspect of this topic that most engages you)
B) INDIVIDUAL PRESENTATIONS –None for this class, they will be rescheduled forward or turned into reports sent out on blog
C) BEHAVIOR CHANGE – Continue to experiment and record, with continuing extra focus on the links between what you’re doing and ****personal and community health***. What is a systemic, holistic approach to health? Note: Journals will be collected on Nov 29 and returned to you at our final meeting.
D) FIELD TRIP – TUE Nov 13- COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - We will meet as ONE group at Significant Elements in the Southside neighborhood, on Plain and Center St. (1 block South of 96B/Clinton) as close to 10:10 (10:15?) as possible.
Here’s a fun exercise in nonhierarchical “learning community”, that can hopefully also be energy-efficient: We will need 4 carpool vehicles, unless enough people want to make it to that location by 10:10 using alternative modes, or go by project teams, which will require 5 vehicles. Please use group email (perhaps supplemented by phone) ASAP to get clear on the number of vehicles, drivers (we already chose 2) and who is riding with them. Include Ron & I in your emailing, so we can assist, if glitches occur.
Please assemble & carpool from parking area behind Snee Hall, and be ready to go as close to 10:00 (10:05?) as possible, unless you and your driver choose a different location. Keep phone numbers on hand and make phone contact if someone does not show up, so 5 people are not waiting a long time for one person. We’ll head back up at 11:55 to get you back on time.
We’ll be meeting with Diane Cohn, director of Significant Elements, to explore plans the for reuse businesses, such as a Deconstruction team and a Reuse Center in the Big Box area, with special focus on green collar workforce development; with real estate developer Frost Travis (from the Connect Ithaca team) on State St, to consider green, transit-oriented oriented development there, from a developer’s business perspective; with Elisabeth Harrod, of Snug Planet, at the same location and time, to look at the same issues from the perspective of a Southside resident and an energy-efficiency business owner; and with Leslie Ackerman, a manager at the Alternative Federal Credit Union, to discuss their programs that support community economic development , especially with the low-income and minority populations.
E) PROJECTS- Good opportunity to catch up in this area. I’ll summarize the emerging schedule and info on presentations & reports in another document.
Thursday, November 8, 2007
I’m going to join everyone in saying that Powershift was absolutely mind-blowing! The energy there was incredible and no words can describe what we all felt when we were together as a growing movement with its eyes on a clean energy future. We are ready to take this to the next level. It’s Getting Hot In Here should continue to grow and tell the stories from around the world (see here). I wanted to share with everybody Ted Glick’s Future Hope Column for this week. Ted, one of the best activists in the nation, has been fasting for over 60 days now. He was at Powershift sharing with all of us young people the incredible energy that this movement has. His column sums up what most of us feel like after Powershift:
“Words fail me as I try to figure out how to capture in words the profound significance of the student-based Power Shift conference which took place November 2-5 at the University of Maryland and on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.
Historic—Powerful—Deep—Amazing—Awesome—Astounding—Incredible—Hope at the Highest Level: these are the adjectives and phrases that come to mind.
So what happened?
Tuesday, November 6, 2007
It is very interesting and inspiring.
It would be great to hear what people in the class think about this.
Monday, November 5, 2007
While Green and Sustainable have been concepts mulled over in universities and environmental organizations for years, even decades, these concepts have not been big in our nation’s workplaces. In fact, to some the go green movement spreading throughout our nation’s largest companies is seen as overdue, but to others, particularly the older generation that went through school without gaining sensitivity to environmental concerns, many of the environmentally thoughtful concepts we hear today in the Megabank commercials (for example) are relatively new. Every big company in America it seems must tout their greenness. The only problem is we are poorly equipped to assess these claims. When Megabank buys commercial time to tell us how they are improving the environment, they generally flash us a picture of a smiling ethnic female employee looking thoughtfully at a similarly happy child playing in a field, as though she cares deeply about that child’s future. Does she? And more importantly is the Megabank really doing all that much? I don’t really know, do you? However, I do speculate that this kind of advertising will likely not fly forever, and is only successful now because the general public is not sophisticated about what types of environmental strategies are truly meaningful and what others do little more than provide a basis for the company to scream that we are green, we care! Just like with your high school sweetie, we are in a period of infatuation, and yes it is beautiful, blah, blah, but it is temporary. I dub this… the era of Greenwashing.
So what pulls us out of this era? When possibly empty claims of environmental concern are no longer acceptable, what will take their place? It is here where the environmental standards play an important role. Programs like LEED and ECOPROFIT not only set concrete standards for environmental protection/stewardship/etc., they also bring recognition and legitimacy to the 99.98% of us that are not going to check Megabank’s environmental record upon hearing their assertions of greenness. For some, these standards have begun to take hold, and we observe that in many circles LEED certification is beginning to mean something meaningful. Among the general public this is not yet the case, but look for more standards to evolve and for organizations who want to put on a green face to gravitate towards these quantifiable standards. Enter the era of Accountability.
As the push for green continues to race throughout corporate America, the need to quantify green programs will increase (after all, why should it be any different from anything else). Companies will want to understand the returns on their green efforts. Most likely companies will be more afraid of the perception that they could be seen as something other than green, and the costs associated with that. Green programs will become part of a company’s common business practices just as most major companies have become sensitive to and developed a policy on minority hiring (for example). Companies will determine an acceptable level of greenness based upon their competitors and upon the perceived benefit, derived mostly by public sentiment, of their programs. If my speculation is accurate, consumers will have done what they do best and shaped the direction and even the values of our nations industries. The power of the consumer can continue to evolve beyond that simply of one which dictates the way in which we want to look, or smell, or have our toast toasted. The power of the consumer can act much like the power of a voter and require our companies to uphold a higher environmental standard.
Sunday, November 4, 2007
Roseland states that the main goal of community economic development (CED) is self-reliance, achieved through collaborative action, capacity building, and the return of local economic control to communities. While I feel collaborative action was something that could have been discussed further, I pulled out a few examples of tools and initiatives he suggests that I liked, followed by a few comments on Beatley’s chapter 12:
-Financing: Reinvestment policies: banks, insurance companies, and other depository institutions are required to reinvest significant portions of the capital they ‘extract’ from the community.
-Skills training and small business development: the idea of creating a “sheltered” place to train local residents, using already existing or easily obtainable space and equipment, allowing for people to gain career training and for start-up costs for those businesses to be lower.
-Interesting point made in the “Green Business” section: “More jobs will be created in energy efficiency, recycling, and public transportation than will be lost in the oil and coal industries, car manufacturing, and waste disposal.” It would be interesting to see projected number that correspond with that statement, since it seems that job loss is a huge point made in the debate over efficiency and transportation.
-Green maps and a Green Business Directory would be great in cities, where so many similar businesses may exist (ie. cafes) that it is difficult to know the details on them all. Having a directory with information on local businesses could be great for a city like Ithaca, which already shows interest in sustainability, and could help stimulate awareness in other cities.
-The idea of rideshare bucks, mentioned under ‘local currency,’ could be useful for Cornell in particular, as an incentive to increase carpooling by commuting employees and decrease campus car traffic.
-Buy Nothing Day: November 29th. Maybe this is something that could be started (if it hasn’t already?) in Ithaca and especially on the Cornell Campus. It seems like it could have a huge impact, especially because it’s during the major kickoff of the holiday shopping season.
-Industrial Symbiosis (Beatley): having wastes from one be inputs for another… A great step for creating closed-loop processes or industrial parks. To add another example, there is a waste processing facility (I believe in North Carolina), sited on an old dump, where the heat from the plant (which makes use of old infrastructure), is used to heat artists’ kilns, and ‘waste’ heat goes on from there to be used. This is a dump that is currently capped, and there are plans to expand to include a recycling/composting facility and recreational space.
-Landscape Recycling & Adaptive Reuse – There is a large segment of landscape architecture that is devoted to this type of work, where ‘brownfields’ are reclaimed for new uses. Their designs definitely incorporate ‘green’ technologies and restorative processes, while giving abandoned or underused spaces new roles to fulfill.
Roseland brings up some examples of the increasingly popular strategy of community economic development; “micro-enterprise loan programs” (170). Micro-lending is made possible by “financial intermediaries” who give small loans to low-income entrepreneurs who would not otherwise be eligible for such loans due to not having any collateral. These programs are generally organized as lending circles, where borrowers receive guidance from others who have successfully repaid loans and started their own businesses in the past. I am curious about the strategies of these “lending circles,” as an employee from Alternatives Credit Union who gave a presentation in a class I was in last semester mentioned that these types of lending circles are not as successful in the U.S. as they are in many foreign countries.
While Roseland admits that the transition process into a more sustainable economy will “produce many losers,” he asserts his confidence that this consequence will be far outweighed by the “winners” (174) when it comes to jobs. Something that worries me, however, is that it seems possible that order of events in this transition process will be first: losers lose, second: winners win. I’m definitely no economic genius, (by any means!) but I’m just thinking that in order for many of these new jobs to be created, the money has to be there to pay the salaries, and so something has to give… is it jobs from the losers? Meaning that; although the winners may have the potential to outnumber the losers, society’s sense of confidence would be severely dented by the decline in “brown” jobs. There’s a good chance I don’t know what I’m talking about here – please feel free to let me know!
In his “Rethinking Economic Development” section, Roseland provides some “tools” for how we can start changing things. He gives the example of “Buy Nothing Day,” (183) which is November 29th, and entails that if a critical mass of would-be-consumers choose not to buy anything on that day, this would reduce waste and output of pollution by staggering amounts. While I am a big fan of the idea, I have heard the argument that this strategy has proven to be ineffective, because unfortunately, the message of “consume less” is not what people take from it. The problem is, whatever people don’t by on November 29th, they will go out and buy on November 30th. Right?
I chose to read the “Community Jobs in the Green Economy” report as my second reading. I found the Foreword to be extremely inspiring, and to those of you who are the “commenters” this week, I would recommend reading at least that page. I am completely in love with the simplicity and poignancy of this statement:“The national effort to curb global warming and oil dependence can simultaneously create good jobs, safer streets, and healthier communities. That is the chief moral obligation in the 21st century: to build a green economy strong enough to lift people out of poverty” (1).
Again, my brain refused to venture into the world of economics, so I may be missing something here, but I felt like there was an integral piece missing from the Green Economy report. The report provides numerous examples of green jobs that will be available with new green technologies; however, it is not clear where the financial backing will come from to employ all of these people. I think it’s semi-obvious that jobs in renewable energies will be paid for in the same fashion as energy is currently paid for – by the user to the energy companies. However; I am worried after hearing the example that (I think) Melanie gave in class of the energy company whose rates dropped so dramatically when they switched to renewable energies that they had to raise them again in order to sustain, and how the consumers were extremely angry about this. So my questions are (1) where will the money come from to pay these green workers: and (2) what sort of regulation would keep the capitalist mentality from negating the benefits?
In general, I feel that in the majority of what we are reading, as idealistic as it seems, is not idealistic enough when it comes to a much needed cultural shift regarding capitalism. The Green Economy report is structured around ways that “every city and community in the United States has some potential to capitalize on this new economy” (19). I’m just frustrated with the acceptance of money as the only driving force for change. I just wish there was more talk on how to start making people realize that money doesn’t equal happiness. Everything in this report is about how everyone can make more money – but there is nothing about how this will require some people who have been at the top of the spectrum of wealth to take a (big) pay cut.
I also appreciate the “cynicism is the problem, not the solution” comment from the Foreword. While being critical thinkers is of extreme importance, it is only helpful if it’s paired with the bravery to be a little idealistic, and take a chance on some unconventional ways of thought and practice.
In terms of sustainability, you have two basic forms of economic development: economics for the rich and economics for the poor. With this divide comes the question; is sustainability a right or a privilege? If it is a right how can we make it cheaper? The problems with sustainability being a right include quality of life. Being more sustainable often equates to having a better quality of life. People, especially Americans, work tirelessly to achieve the American Dream—something that will supposedly improve your quality of life so does this mean that the same degree of sustainability should be available for the wealthy and poor?
Here is a case we discussed. Let’s say you have a wealthy person who buys a solar panel. The solar panel breaks in a couple of years, but still manages to squeeze some juice out. What are the ethical implications of selling this broken unit to a poor community (particularly in a third world country)? Would this situation be considered an act of good-will or one that is unethical? The conclusion I have made is that it was an act of good-will although the unit is almost broken. Here is why: Firstly there is knowledge associated with owning a unit such as this. The economically disadvantaged often do not have the resources to acquire something as technologically advanced and expensive as a solar panel. If something like this is given to the poor they would firstly be given knowledge that something such as solar power exists. Secondly, they would feel a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction for possessing such a “powerful” asset. Finally, there is always the potential for resale after the person wants to “upgrade” to a better solar panel using the savings made from not having to pay for electricity.
Here is another thought to play around with…Is a socially responsible, for-profit organization an oxymoron? This was an issue addressed many times- I feel unnecessarily, at the conference. To me, for profit just indicates that all extra profits made by the company go into retained earnings or are given as dividends. Because something is for profit has no link to being socially irresponsible. What do you think?
One final topic I would like to discuss is Micro financing. While this concept was thrown around a great deal at our conference, the most interesting thing to me was an organization called KIVA. Check it out! Kiva.org You lend money to startup businesses and it helps them to enhance the economic development of their community. It is just a loan too! Bill Clinton has done a great deal with this organization and if you check it out, you will probably find it pretty interesting. Any thoughts on it? Personally, I think it is an absolutely fantastic program for several reasons. First of all, it is quick and easy, secondly it doesn’t take much money and finally you can see the progress the person you donated the money to made with what you leant. Seeing the results of what your money does is fantastic because you actually feel like you made a difference. To me, it’s a no-brainer!
Please, tell me what you think- I’ve been surrounded by these questions all weekend and although they are not about the readings we did, I know we can apply them to my line of questioning.
"The Unbearable Whiteness of Greening"
I have decided to look at the Ella Baker Center for Human Rights, which is mentioned in the Apollo Alliance publication "Community Jobs in the Green Economy." The slogan for the national nonprofit is "Working for JUSTICE in the system, OPPORTUNITY in our cities, and PEACE on our streets." Among the several programs that Ella Baker is involved in I wish to highlight the "Green for All" initiative. The purpose of this program is to "ensure that this green economy is strong enough to lift people out of poverty."
Ella Baker successfully advocated nationally for The Green Jobs Act of 2007 that was passed by the House of Representatives as part of a "sweeping" energy bill and would authorize as much as $125 million for green jobs training.
At the local level, Ella Baker through Green for All has formed the Green Jobs Corps in Oakland, CA. This pilot project seeks to demonstrate that green economic development is the path out of poverty. The Green Jobs Corps is a partnership between local community development corps, unions, and the City of Oakland.
The Green Jobs Corps will:
Recruit participants and provide them with ongoing support;
Teach participants “soft” skills: general life skills necessary to be successful in any work environment;
Teach participants "hard" skills: specific required to work on new energy projects as a member of the Oakland Green Corps;
Provide participants with employment experience for a limited time on City-funded renewable energy and efficiency projects;
Support participants in transitioning from the Oakland Green Jobs Corps into independent employment.
Green for All also hosts ongoing "Solutions Salon" with the title of an upcoming session "Green Cities, Brown Folks: Sustainable Solutions for a Safe and Healthy Oakland." The free event includes food and music and will feature leaders in the East Bay who are on the cutting-edge of creative environmentalism that is rooted in communities of color.
My assessment of Ella Baker's green initiative is that they are extremely successful in disseminating knowledge and empowering people of color. Instead of looking at the green economy as "white" based Ella Baker is creating part of the green economy and through their work people of color are becoming leaders in the movement and more are poised to become strong and creative thinkers. These are all outcomes that are at the core of the justice movement. I found their work to be by far the most inspiring I have read or heard about in this class. I also commend the program more generally for their effective website and obvious strong organizational skills, all necessary to effectively disseminate their mission.
In this age of globalization, the idea of community based economic development might prove difficult to promote. Not only do large, trans-national corporations place sustainability on the back burner as they make decisions about expansion and involvement in the global market, but local businesses as a whole also appear to place more emphasis on short-term economic growth than on long-term improvements to society as a whole. Although this week’s readings provide many examples of companies and localities who have managed to integrate economic growth with sustainable practices, I do not necessarily believe that most companies are ready or willing to adopt such practices. Being inexperienced with economic development, I still have many questions. Specifically, if green development is truly as affordable and accessible as many claim, then why don’t more companies pursue it? Moreover, can such practices (which emphasize local production and consumption) truly find success in a globalized market, or will they simply fizzle out as capitalist enterprises gobble up the globe searching for the next available and exploitable source of capital and labor? Keeping these questions at the back of my mind, I will discuss one eco-friendly economic development scheme that I found particularly interesting.
On page 184, Beatley begins an interesting discussion about landscape recycling and adaptive reuse. He focuses his energy on the Emscher Park International Building Exhibition in northwestern Germany. This complex managed to convert an industrial brownfield into a vibrant mixed-use community. Once a wasteland, the site now boasts a wide range of facilities including artist studios, a museum, public bike paths/parks, and private residences. By cleverly reusing the land, Emscher Park minimizes its ecological footprint by slowing urban sprawl, reducing pollution emissions, and bringing community members together. At the same time, the development has jumpstarted economic development in a once decayed region. Perhaps there are several things that we can learn from such development here in Ithaca.
Reflecting upon Connect Ithaca’s PRT plan, I remember that we discussed the possibility of a mixed use development installation next to the Gun Hill apartment complex. If we were to retrofit the old factory for some sort of new use, then we could accomplish many of the same things that were accomplished at Emscher Park. In fact, our site might prove even more environmentally friendly than Emscher Park because it will be linked to a sustainable mass transit line that services all of Ithaca. We could certainly use this site creatively to improve quality of life and promote economic development within Ithaca. For example, we might provide cheap studio space for local entrepreneurs and artists who desire to start a business or open a gallery. We could also supplement this commercial development with more cultural enterprises—perhaps a museum that celebrates local history or some sort of public park that encourages community interaction (though neither of these two things would necessarily generate revenues).
Though creative, I understand that this scheme poses many logistical challenges. For example, development of this sort, especially if we seek to preserve the factory and minimize our ecological footprint, is very expensive. Moreover, the site is already highly contested within local government. Not only do residents and officials desire to preserve the view of Cayuga Lake, but I believe that environmental impact studies have found toxins of some sort within the factory or perhaps integrated into the soil. Such toxins would be incredibly expensive to remove. So even if adaptive reuse of the site will yield positive returns in the long run (which I'm not sure that it would) it will be incredibly difficult to sell this proposal to local residents and officials.
Thursday, November 1, 2007
Today, a greater amount of attention is beginning to focus on our cities aging infrastructure. Recent event in New York City, with a major steam pipe bursting, and in Minneapolis, with the collapsing bridge, have brought more attention to this issue. Many expect that as our cities age and their infrastructure begins to wear, incidents like this will become more common. In reading Edens Lost and Found (Introduction and Los Angeles chapters), there is discussion of the errors that took place in creating our major city’s infrastructure. It occurred to me that as this infrastructure approaches the end of its usable life we have a great opportunity to replace those systems with ecologically superior models, and greatly improve our environment as well as the overall livability of our cities. Los Angeles represents a terrific example of this because its initial infrastructure was so terribly designed by modern standards that perhaps it has the most to gain from its reformation. There are two terrific examples of infrastructure modernization that can make a great difference in LA, floodwater management and transportation.
Los Angeles created a flood management system that pushes all flood waters into giant concrete river basins that divert all water outside of the city. These basins not only do a disservice to the city by removing water that could be put to use, but they also serve to create massive dissections of the city which have an enormous and negative affect on pedestrians and all city dwellers who are now greatly discouraged from crossing the basins. In Edens Lost and Found, the concept of cistern-and-swale technology (though I hesitate to use that term for such a low-tech idea) is discussed as a more viable solution to the massive flood basins currently in place. This technology manages flood water and effectively retains it for later use. The impact of the use of cistern-and-swale instead of the massive basins could have a great impact on the city through improved use of storm water and allowing greater mobility across areas of the city that are affected by these great boundaries of concrete.
Another example of a devastating infrastructure choice made by the city of LA that offers great opportunity for improvement is that relating to transportation. LA is notorious for its traffic, and for good reason. The city was built up around the automobile. LA’s concrete jungle nearly requires inhabitants to use an automobile to get through it. However, as LA’s huge number of bridges and overpasses age, the repair of the auto infrastructure will become more and more expensive. Combined with the price of fuel, there will be great pressure to develop alternative methods of transportation. Though Californians love their autos, it only makes sense that we would have to question the increasing costs associated with maintaining an increasingly expensive and inefficient mode of transportation in light of smarter technologies that move LA’s citizens to work, home, the beaches and the malls.
All in all, our aging cities offer the greatest opportunity to make a real impact on the environment and on the quality of life through smarter infrastructure choices. More people, more money and a greater overall impact make our cities great candidates for an all new infrastructure boom in this country similar to the one that took place in the early-to-mid 20th century, but smarter and more environmentally and socially sound.
In the past few weeks, we have seen some interesting Urban Nature presentations of a very general nature that have been useful in opening discussions on human-wildlife interactions and conflict, etc. At this point, we should moving towards more field observations and reports and less internet work. As an example, I have included a web link below to the kind of work imagined.
Let's get creative! Collect some leaves and look for diseases. A tree or leaf handbook and some wax paper are all the materials required. Observe the multitude of migrating birds coming through Ithaca and relate your urban wildlife observations to current environmental issues. Find out where all of the jack-o-lanterns went, and why they aren't ending up in compost heaps in community and home gardens. Let's get those "naturalist" juices flowing and try some observation based hypothesizing.
Here are more resources, generated from ecologists who have attempted to develop activities for urban and school contexts:
Betros, H. F. 1972. Understanding Schoolyard Ecology. Jericho, NY: Exposition Press.
Classroom organization techniques plus many activity chapters on plants, animals, soils, and water.
Blaustein, E. and R. Blaustein. 1978. Investigating Ecology. New York: Arco Publishing.
Open-ended set of projects based on ecological principles. Each project has a background section, procedures, and ideas for further investigation.
Booth, C. R. Ecology in the National Curriculum: A Practical Guide to Using School Grounds. Winchester: Learning Through Landscapes Trust.
The British National Curriculum's attainment goals and programs for study for ecology are defined in this resource, as well as outlining investigation questions and methods.
Bowman, M.L. 1976. Environmental Education in the Urban Setting: Rationale and Teaching Activities. Columbus, OH: ERIC/CSMEE.
Busch, P. S. 1972. Exploring as You Walk in the Meadow. J.B. Lippincott Company.
Carman, S. 1992. Guidelines and Features for Outdoor Classrooms. Indiana Department of Natural Resource.
Planning for the development of your schools outdoor lab.
Corvine, C.; Welting, W.; and E. Arms. 1988. Beyond The Classroom: Exploration of Schoolyard and Backyard. Lincoln, MA: Massachusetts Audubon Society.
Introductory section gives rationale and strategies for using the schoolyards for science. Contains a collection of 33 activities in life, physical, and earth science.
Clark, R. and P. Walters. 1992. Trees in the School Grounds. Devin, England: Southgate Publishers.
Background text enhanced with detailed illustrations, this book devotes many chapters to tree activities and projects, such as "discovering tree dwellers", and "investigating wood properties."
Cronin-Jones, L. 1992. The Schoolyard Wildlife Activity Guide. Tallahassee: Florida Game & Freshwater Fish Commission.
Contains a curriculum framework, identifying key ecological concepts addressed in the lesson plans, 35 individual activity lessons, and large appendix and cross reference section.
Debris, J. 1989. Schoolyard-Backyard Cycles of Science. Cartage, IL: Good Apple.
Features reproducible activity pages in physical, biological, earth, and space science. Major emphasis is placed on starter activities to prompt children to ask "why?"
Denny and Hand. Exploring the Secrets of Meadow-Thicket: A Story of Seasonal Activities for the Curious Child.
Cooperative learning activities usable in local parks, fields, lawns, or lots.
Dunning, E. and A.B. Mills. 1992. Backyard and Beyond: A Guide for Discovering the Outdoors. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing.
A how-to book on stalking, tracking, and observing common backyard critters.
Gale, W. and P. Warren. 1989. Ecology Discovery Activities Kit. West NYC, NY: The Center for Applied Research in Education.
49 Easy-to-use, hands-on activities covering the essential areas of ecology: populations, communities, food web/energy flow, recycling. Good for grades 4-8.
Hancock, J. 1991. Biology Is Outdoors! : A Comprehensive Resource for Studying School Environments. Portland, ME: J. Weston Walt.
Consists of 10 investigations in and around the school grounds. Each investigation has reproducible student pages, a teacher's section, spin-off ideas, and references.
Hogan, K. 1994. Eco-Inquiry: A Guide to Ecological Learning Experiences for the Upper Elementary/Middle Grades. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.
In-depth curriculum focusing on nutrient and energy cycling in ecosystems. The three modules incorporate cooperative learning, inquiry techniques, and alternative assessment.
Hunker, J. 1994. Ecology For All Ages. Old Saybrook, CT: Globe Pequot Press.
Investigative activities and background information about the following topics: backyard ecology, water systems, fields and borders, trees and woods, and dry zones.
Johns, F.; K. Liske; and A. Evans. 1986. Education Goes Outdoors. Menlo Park, CA: Addison Wesley Publishing.
Outdoor activities to integrate into all aspects of curriculum: science beyond the classroom, schoolyard math, outdoor language adventures, group building activities, etc.
McCormack, J. 1979. Outdoor Areas as Learning Centers. Columbus, OH: ERIC/CSMEE.
Perdue, P. 1991. Schoolyard Science. Glenview, IL.: Goodyear Books, Scott, Foresman, and Co.
25 class-tested activities to develop cooperation, thinking, and process skills in physical, soil, life, and environmental science. Grades 2-4.
Roth, C. and L. Lockwood. 1979. Strategies and Activities for Using Local Communities as Environmental Education Sites. Columbus, OH.: ERIC/CSMEE.
Russell, H.R. 1990. Ten Minute Fieldtrips. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association.
Chapters devoted to different areas of science (includes an ecology section), with lots of teacher background, schoolyard fieldtrip possibilities, and related classroom activities.
Schaefer, J., et al. 1992. Schoolyard Ecosystems for Northeast Florida. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Advisory Council on Environmental Ed.
Focus is on schoolyard enhancements like trails and specialty gardens.
Schiff, P., and C. Smith-Walters. 1993. Wild School Site: A Guide to Preparing for Habitat Improvement Projects on School Grounds. Western Regional Environmental Education Council.
Shaffer, C., and E. Fielder. 1987. City Safaris: A Sierra Club Explorer's Guide to Urban Adventures for Grownups and Kids. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books.
A unique book of ideas for urban fieldtrips in many subject areas: food, trash, and energy expenditure, city people, etc. One chapter devoted to neighborhood wild places.
Smith, D. 1984. Practical Ecology Series. Urban Ecology. London: George Allen and Unwin Publishers, Ltd.
A British resource containing 24 exercises in three main areas of focus: disturbed areas, man-made niches, and pollution.
Thomas, Gill. 1993. Science in the School Grounds. Southgate Publishers.
A British resource with major sections in weather, mini beasts, trees, ponds, grassed areas, wild flowers. Appendix has teacher/parent background sheets and pupil worksheets.
Williams, G. M., and W. H. Dowdeswell. 1990. Ecology For The National Curriculum. London: Unwin Hyman.
Investigations based on ten easily accessible habitats likely to occur around schools.
Young, K. Using School Grounds as an Educational Resource. Learning through Landscapes.
Tuesday, October 30, 2007
I am hoping that we could try to divide our discussions into framing the problem and posing potential solutions to that problem. This allows for our discussions to be responsible and perhaps less self-indulgent. I suspect that when students are free to respectfully challenge other students and ask them to propose a solution to their hypotheses, discussions will sharpen, and the result will be a more systematic and complete discussion.
Holding Ground: The Rebirth of Dudley Street
THIS Wednesday, October 31, 2007 (that's right, Halloween!!)
MOVIE: Holding Ground: The Rebirth of Dudley Street
WHEN: Wednesday, October 31, 2007, 5-7pm
WHERE: Sibley 211
Holding Ground is at once a cautionary tale of urban policies gone wrongand a message of hope for all American cities. In 1985, African-American,Latino, Cape Verdean, and European-American residents in Roxbury, MAunited to revitalize their community. The Dudley Street NeighborhoodInitiative went on to gain national recognition as residents fought toclose down illegal dumps, gain unprecedented control of land from CityHall and create a comprehensive plan to rebuild the fabric of theircommunity. Through the voices of committed residents, activists and cityofficials, this moving documentary shows how a Boston neighborhood wasable to create and carry out its own agenda for change.
Monday, October 29, 2007
The revitalization of PS 64, formerly a public school building in the South Bronx, is an example of how successful this community group was in their efforts to restore the South Bronx. Residents and non resident cultural groups organized with the non profit organization CHARAS, to reclaim, restore, and revitalize the PS 64 school building and turn it into a community and cultural center, which they called El Bohio. The creation of El Bohio Community and Cultural Center is one of many other visible products of the “Don’t Move: Improve!” Campaign. This campaign is an example of how residents can use grassroots organizing to create a sense of community. As it is explained in Toward Sustainable Communities, creating a sense of place and developing connections between people in a community involves ensuring that the physical environment brings people together and creates a peaceful, secure community that residents can be proud of. The “Don’t Move: Improve!” campaign got residents involved in improving the physical environment in their community, which created a sense of place that went missing after the financial resources relocated to the suburbs and left the South Bronx to suffer in urban decay. With community and cultural centers as well as locally owned small businesses, residents could be proud to call their South Bronx community home. Furthermore, by investing in the community, residents and community groups have insured that the streets are safer and more peaceful. Revitalized and restored buildings replace spaces that can be potentially used for illegal and dangerous activity with spaces that encourage healthy cultural and community activity. El Bohio Community and Cultural Center in the South Bronx is only one of the many buildings that the “Don’t Move: Improve” campaign has restored.
This community revitalization campaign was particularly interesting to me because I think that it incorporates much of our discussions about the importance of grassroots organizing. Furthermore, as a resident of the South Bronx myself, I think that these examples of successful community grassroots organizing are extremely relevant - I think that its pretty clear how this example applies to my own neighborhood. With this campaign, residents were empowered by the opportunity to take control of their community. Residents and non-resident cultural groups reenvisioned their community and then they took action. They not only changed the physical character of the community, but they also changed developed a healthy sense of place within their community. This case study reiterates the undeniable fact that community development, restoration or revitalization works best when the actual community is involved. Who can better dictate what a community should be then the people who live in it?
It is probably impossible to write all of the ways that the city of Buffalo, NY could be helped/changed based on the tools and examples presented in Apollo Alliance’s “Create High-Performance Buildings,” Toward Sustainable Communities’ “Housing and Community Development,” and Beatley’s “Building Ecologically: Designing Buildings and Neighborhoods with Nature in Mind.” The themes of affordable housing and having a new skilled labor force resonate especially for
Firstly, after the steel industry failed/ended/left
Secondly, although housing costs in western
Lastly, regional green energy projects would be far more effective if they benefited regional residents directly. Anecdote: as a part of my job this summer, I conducted wetland mapping with an environmental consulting firm that was hired by Noble Environmental Power, a power company constructing hundreds of wind turbines across a nearby rural farming county. When asked by friends and family members about the development, the first question was always “who does the power go to?” After explaining that the power is generated, collected, and sent to the national grid which “distributes it all over,” I received grimaces. People were angry that their pristine land and the land of their friends and family was being used up for the construction of windmills (let alone the years of being contacted again and again by the energy company and allowing people from another firm walk all over their land looking for wetlands), yet they didn’t “see” any of the power that was generated. I gained the sense that these people would be FAR more interested in buying renewable green power from this company if they knew that their local sacrifices showed more of a local result. I feel that this might even be more important that financial incentives and tax breaks.
1. a community gardens pamphlet
2. a survey (or two), first focusing on the visibility of community gardens, then on more details
3. Meeting to Discuss our findings with stakeholders; to explore what community gardening has been and what planners and policy makers want it to be?
Survey: What information are we gathering? Access (transportation, walking distance, joining)? What questions matter?
Pamphlet: Our work – locations, who’s involved
Are there differences between “Grassroots” community gardens and those that are city-supported?
-gardening as the process -gardens as space - gardeners as actors
Are community gardens basically invisible?
Why are community gardens invisible?
Why does visibility matter? (implication for policy, land use, public opinion)
1. Community gardens want to be invisible (“private world,” squatters – under the radar)
2. Community gardens don’t want to be invisible, but there is a set of constraints or problems that make them invisible (outreach challenge).
3. Community gardens aren’t really invisible, we just haven’t discovered how they’re seen through this process or approach.
1. Community gardening is part of sustainability and green cities.
2. Community gardening happens because people are motivated about sustainability. (or for necessity: food, to work in the ground)
Gardens We’ve Considered:
People’s Garden Project
Ithaca Children’s Garden
Next steps: survey people about their knowledge of the gardens: are they aware?
Map gardens using concentric rings (1 block, 3 blocks, 5 blocks…) and plot areas of awareness.
Page one of survey:
Who we are
Why we’re doing the research
Where is your closest community park?
Where is your closest community green space?
Where is your closest community garden?
** use Liechert scale to rate these questions (1-3 blocks, 4-6, 6-9, 10+, don’t know)
--- Want to see: How the public differentiates (if at all) between these three items, how that plays into visibility, and whether the public considers community gardens to be green space.
Page two of survey:
What is the street intersection closest to your home?
Scaled questions/further information
***these questions must be answerable for those who are unaware of community gardens nearby.
Could develop a second survey to administer to those who seem aware of nearby community gardens to obtain more information about their impressions of the gardens.
I really liked the idea of green mortgages and bonds as well. Rather than our government spending money directly to install green systems for commercial buildings or private homes, it is simply forgoing the tax revenue they normally receive on investment earnings (which is a strategy used in a number of different community revitalization programs- ie, tax credits for restoring a historical building). Plus, people love taking advantage of tax free oportunities- my dad legitimately gets excited about donating our old clothing and recreation equipment to Salvation Army because he gets to write them off when he does our taxes. If we can emphasize the long-term benefits of installing energy-saving devices combined with the opportunties to take advantage of tax breaks, we can be a lot more successful in marketing these tools to your run-of-the-mill suburban home owner.
Of course, while these policies have major implications for getting the upper middle class and business elite involved in sustainability, they can also be used to generate social justice as well. For instance, as a part of the green mortgages program, the government could stipulate that a certain percentage of funds must be reinvested into affordable housing projects, low-income neighborhoods, etc.
It is vital to think about sustainability from the beginning of a project. After a building is constructed, enacting energy saving measures only takes a small chunk out of the energy usage. When energy was cheap, builders and architects didn’t need to think about efficient ventilation and lighting strategies. Any poor design was more than met by hyped up ventilation and cooling setups. Now that energy prices have begun to climb and energy shortages have become a problem, designers and architects have started to change their strategy on building design.
It seems foolish to think that buildings are designed to only take advantage of a plot of land in terms of esthetic values and pay no particular attention to spatial orientation. As the sun moves through the day and through the seasons, it strikes different areas of a building and with differing intensities. Devices such as sun shelves are able to project this light a considerable distance into a building’s interior and by using highly insulated windows, do not bring with it the added heat. During the winter months, this light could be used to shine on dark surfaces such as a dark stone floor allowing heat to be stored in the floor and aid in heating the building. During the summer, this sun could be aimed at a certain part of the roof to create updrafts which pull warm air from inside the building and provide a means of naturally ventilating the building. These examples of passive solar are fairly easy to implement, but must be thought about at the onset of a home, and just by taking advantage of the sun, a building could potentially cut its energy usage in half.
Beatley brings up a slew of examples on how Europeans have begun to implement sustainable aspects into new building design. It seems a shame that Americans have not jumped on this same trend. European policy makers have seen the same trends in energy usage that have been realized in the US, but instead of addressing rising energy demand by increasing supply, they have fought the rising demand through efficiency. Highly subsidized and publicized programs promote the use of energy efficient homes that take advantage of passive solar as described above. To curtail car usage, many cities have enacted high-speed bus loops and tram service which greatly exceeds even the best public transportation systems in the
Beatley sums it up very well saying, “There is simply not enough attention given in the
The chapter begins by displaying the Philadelphia flower show and its side project Philadelphia green. The Philadelphia flower show is an event which occurs once a year and creates massive displays of both flowers in artistic arangements (see above) and flower gardens. This is an interesting program because it covers multiple tactics. Most importantly the flower show does not work completely to educate, but mostly to amaze. And what better way for people to see the benefits of green in the city? Green Philadelphia continues this program by taking proceeds from the show and using them to create green spaces in the community. However they do not create spaces unless at least 85% of the neighborhood or block wants it. They they have everyone contribute (about $1). This functions as a commitment of the community to keep this space, it makes it theirs. It seems important to consider when doing any type of planning for a city to become part of the city instead of reaching to educate, or to recreate as Register would desire. Another interesting point the chapter brought up was how Philadelphia is a city of neighborhoods, and the work is often done neighborhood by neighborhood, block by block. Once again we see the importance of bottom up activity, as well as starting small instead of attempting large scale restructuring which displaces people and communities, while putting in large risks which often fail. We also see how the work can be a slow process, but that doesn't mean it is not moving. Philadelphia is an example of cities that is working to solve it's problems through the benefits of of nature, not solve it's problems of nature. The West Philadelphia initiative is working to add green space and trees to the city, which in turn creates increased aesthetic value, causing more people to see the city as a viable place to live and therefore increasing density.What was most interesting to me was the use of art in sustainability. In a culture that is plagued by sprawl, privatization, and loss of communications, art has the power to unite and recreate community. Philadelphia has many mural programs which range from those created by artists, to children, to prisoners, all in different neighborhoods of the city. The murals often reflect some aspect of the community, creating community pride and an increase in people staying. These murals can also beautify the community without leading to gentrification.
One of the things I was struck by and disappointed with was how the book glossed over some nice little details of the past. For instance it mentions the West Philadelphia Initiative, a part of the University of Pennsylvania as being a revitalizing force of West Philly. While this is true and the organization does work to create a better community, it completely ignores the fact that Penn completely destroyed a neighborhood (not exactly unintentionally either) in order to create university city, a transient area (think collegetown). In my opinion the organization does not do nearly enough to account for the damage it caused, or to account for the incredible seperation between the two parts or types of West Philadelphia, the poorer neighborhood, and that of students and professors. There is a double edged sward to this revitilization as we see prices increase. So once again (I know everyone is getting sick of it) I bring up my point of the real effect that green cities have on it's lower class residents?
Sunday, October 28, 2007
The Healthy House was designed by architect Martin Liefhebber for a sustainable housing design competition sponsored by the CMHC (The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation). The house, which was built in 1996, is actually two 3-bedroom, four-story dwelling units of 1,700 square feet that require no municipal power or water inputs, nor outside sewage treatment. The annual operating costs for the house total less than $300. The Healthy House is equipped with an impressive array of on-site water filtration, solar power generation and energy-efficient design that allows the house to operate independent of the municipal grid while feeding the excess power it generates back into the municipal power supply. (healthyhousesystem.com/toronto.html)
Of course, the house was built using as many local and sustainable products as possible on a vacant lot in a Toronto neighborhood that is close to public transit. The landscape features low-input gardens with edible plants, and all the home's appliances were chosen for their energy-efficiency. The heating and cooling system for the Healthy House uses passive and active solar systems, radiant solar floors, cogeneration, photovoltaic panels, super-efficient windows, air-tight super insulation, geothermal water circulation for cooling, and trellises of deciduous plants to provide summer shade and winter sun exposure.
One of the most impressive feats of the Healthy House in Toronto is its ability to treat and recycle waste water on-site. All the water used in the house is collected from natural precipitation and stored in a limestone cistern. Thanks to a basement composter and water filtration unit, household water is recycled as much as five times before it is slowly released back into the soil in the garden. (www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/popup/hhtoronto/htg.htm) Even toilet waste is effectively composted in the basement and grey water purified through a mix of microoganism digestion (including worms), oxygenation, ultraviolent radiation and charcoal filtration - anyone looking for more information on how this system works should check out healthyhousesystem.com/theory.html. According to the Healthy House website, the system "can reduce water consumption by up to 90% while allowing users to maintain modern consumption patterns." The house's composting and water systems attempt to mimic natural composting and water filtration systems. This is yet another example of how, by paying closer attention to natural ecological systems, we can increase the efficiency of our urban built ecosystems. Not only do the natural systems work well, they also require little to no power inputs in order to function.
How much would a house like this cost in the real world? According to the designers and builders, any home could be built to function like The Healthy House at a cost of around $120/square foot. This figure is apparently equal to the low end price for a custom-built home in Toronto.(www.eyeweekly.com/eye/issue/issue_03.06.03/city/houses.php) The Healthy House isn't that expensive to build, it can start to pay you back right away in surplus power and energy-efficiency, and it can serve the inhabitants in the same way as a regular home, but why aren't more of these types of homes being built? Some of the other blogs discuss what many European countries are doing to encourage this type of building, but Canada and the U.S. still have a lot of catching up to do.
There were solar panels, grey water treatment, rain water catchments and a green roofs featured on top of their building that was is the process of being built when I got to visit. Inside, the floors were made out of fast-growing bamboo. The walls and office dividers were made out of those compressed hay panels that Beatley talked about in his chapter. The architect’s desks were recycled doors from the original post office. All of the appliances were EnergyStar and the bathrooms featured low flow toilets and sinks. The paints used were all ecologically friendly and as I remember their furniture was made out of recycled materials.
With so many recycled products in the office, it would seem like a pretty shabby place. However, that was not the case at all. If the architects hadn’t explained the energy efficient assets in their office I would have thought that everything was brand new. What’s more is that they used their office as an example for their clients—so that they could see that sustainable building practices were attractive and cutting edge. They also encouraged their clients to choose local or recycled building materials in the designs for new buildings. In this way, they were not only able to put their principles into practice, but also influence other major community stakeholders to incorporate sustainable practices into their business.
In order to meet housing needs for lower-income people, Ithaca can fund the development of new affordable housing units near the city center. Making such developments accessible to the city center is important in ensuring a good quality of life for city members. In addition to tax breaks, Ithaca can further encourage affordable housing development by providing low-interest loans, assistance in forming housing associations, and resources to develop community land trusts. Ithaca can also work with volunteer organizations and examples like Eco-Village to promote replication of such housing units. Finally, to promote community, cooperative housing, urban cooperative blocks, and programs that bring residents together can be enticed.
The chapter on building designs in Green Urbanism looks at the great examples that exist in Europe of sustainable building. In northern European countries, building complexes are designed to reduce energy use, increase density, and maximize resource use and availability. From Ecolonia to Morra Park, examples of ecological building abound in Europe. Most of them make very wide use of solar energy for both electricity, lighting, and hot water. In the Netherlands, especially, the government itself sets national targets for achieving bold reductions in energy use and sharp improvements in resource efficiencies and high density. The government funds several programs that involve the public and private sectors, encouraging collaboration and incentivizing higher sustainable building standards. While there are many examples in the United States, few are as impressive as the examples in Europe, where high density and full utility of solar energy, energy efficiency, and open space are very common. The challenge for the United States is to build the capacity for radically different building standards and to create policies that will discourage energy and resource waste in buildings and encourage density, green design, and efficiency.
The categories for which credits are awarded are:
Smart Location & Linkages
Wetland and water conservation (required)
Ag land conservation (required)
Reduced automobile dependence
Housing and jobs proximity
Restoration of habitat
Neighborhood Pattern and Design
Compact Development (required)
Affordable rental and for-sale housing
Reduced parking footprint
Access to public facilities, transit, and open (recreational) space
Local food production
Green Construction & Technology
Construction activity pollution prevention (required)
LEED certified buildings
Reuse of historic buildings
Reduced water use
Minimal site disturbance
On-site renewable energy sources and energy generation
Wastewater and stormwater management
Innovation and Design Process
Innovation and exemplary performance
LEED accredited professional
Projects get no points for the required criteria, but can earn up to 106 points for meeting combinations of the optional criteria. To be certified, a project must garner at least 40 points; projects earning more can qualify for silver, gold, or platinum certification. The standards themselves are fairly objective, for instance, many of the transit-related criteria rely on Vehicular Miles Traveled calculations. Brownfield redevelopment, ecological and wetland conservation, and ag land conservation all hinge on existing government standards and classifications.
The LEED-ND Core Committee commissioned a study last year about the public health implications of the program. While not an appraisal of LEED-ND per se, the committee used the findings of the report to shape the ND criteria to reap the greatest public health impact. The report had a strong EJ component to it, addressing the impacts of neighborhood location on special populations such as women, the elderly, children, and low-income households and also discussing how social capital is accrued and leveraged within a community. For reasons to support smart growth, this report is excellent, giving substantive reasons for reduced vehicular travel ranging from fewer incidences of asthma and car-related injuries, to improved physical fitness and mental health.
In one way or another, almost every aspect of green cities that we have discussed in this course is encompassed by the rating system. It would be interesting to rate some of the projects described by Beatley in Chapter 10 and see how they fare with the LEED-ND certification process. Perhaps they could serve as benchmarks for some of the projects that are currently part of the pilot program in the US and Canada. 120 projects were admitted into the pilot program, but there are currently more than 220 projects across North America that will be seeking certification when complete. I had the chance to meet the developer of one of the projects this past week at the Urban Land Institute fall meeting in Las Vegas. Dockside Green, located in Victoria, British Columbia, is aiming for Platinum certification. The website touts the project’s sustainability as follows: “A model for holistic, closed-loop design, Dockside Green will function as a total environmental system in which form, structure, materials, mechanical and electrical systems will be interrelated and interdependent - a largely self-sufficient, sustainable community where waste from one area will provide fuel for another. Here you will find a dynamic environment where residents, employees, neighbouring businesses and the broader community will interact in a healthy and safe environment, reclaimed from disuse and contamination."
USGBC LEED-ND (find the program document, scoring rubric, and public health report here.)